TỰ HỌC IELTS CHO NGƯỜI MỚI BẮT ĐẦU – BUỔI 2: VOCABULARY IELTS: Mental and physical development
Dưới đây là các nội dung bài tự học IELTS tại nhà trong chuỗi series 2h Học Ielts Mỗi Ngày của kênh Meomun With English. Bạn nhớ luyện nghe và ôn tập đều đặn nhé.
I. Transcript bài nghe và file mp3
Link MP3 trên Spotify: TẠI ĐÂY
In the first years of a child’s life, many important milestones (nhiều dấu mốc quan trọng) are reached. By the end of the first year, a baby will have already acquired (có được, thu được, học được) some social skills. He will enjoy imitating (bắt chước) people and will also test parental responses to his behaviour. For example, what do my parents do if I refuse food? In terms of movement (về mặt di chuyển), an infant will be able to reach a sitting position unassisted and pull himself up to stand (Một đứa trẻ có thể tự đến chỗ ngồi mà không cần sự trợ giúp và tự mình đứng lên) . He may be able to walk momentarily (tự bước đi trong giây lát) without support.
As far as communication is concerned (khi muốn giao tiếp), he will be able to use simple gestures (cử chỉ đơn giản) such as shaking his head for ‘no’, say ‘mama’ and ‘dada’ and he will try to imitate words. When it comes to cognitive development (giai đoạn phát triển nhận thức), he will be able to find hidden objects easily and use objects correctly such as drinking from a cup. (Unit 2: Mental and physical)
By the age of two or three, the infant has reached the toddler stage (giai đoạn chập chững). In terms of social skills (về mặt kĩ năng xã hội), this means, he is becoming more independent, which may result in the occasional tantrum (tình trạng cáu gắt). However, he has learned to take turns in (thay phiên nhau)games and spontaneously (một cách tự nhiên) expresses affection. His physical development will also have increased significantly as he can now move around a lot faster and even run. He can also climb up stairs or onto relatively low obstacles (trở ngại tương đối thấp), and even ride a small tricycle.
However, he will still be rather unsteady (chông chênh, không ổn định) on his feet at times. When it comes to language and communication he can now understand most sentences and uses four- and five-word sentences. In terms of cognitive development, he’s learned to play make-believe games (trò chơi giả bộ) and uses his imagination more. He has also mastered (làm chủ, giỏi) the skill of sorting objects according to their shape and colour.
Between the ages of six and twelve, a child reaches what is termed ‘middle childhood'(giữa thời thơ ấu) and they will stay in this phase until they reach adolescence (tuổi vị thành niên, tuổi dậy thì). In middle childhood, children’s development is more affected by the outside world and the child’s world expands to include friends, teachers, sports trainers and so on. Children develop at various rates and while some children in middle childhood seem very mature in terms of (trưởng thành về mặt) their emotional and social skills, others seem very immature (non nớt). As far as physical milestones are concerned, during this stage growth is steady but less rapid than during the pre-school years. There are some major changes occurring at this stage as baby teeth will come out and permanent adult teeth will grow. As the mouth is not yet fully developed this may cause overcrowding. Eyes will reach maturity (sự trưởng thành) in both size and function. In terms of their cognitive ability, children at this stage master the skills of sequencing and ordering (trình tự và sắp xếp), which are essential for maths. By the end of this period children should have acquired effective reading and writing skills.
—–HỌC IELTS MỖI NGÀY: (Unit 2: Mental and physical) —-
Teacher: What do you remember about your early childhood?
Student: Oh, I remember being very happy! I have a lot of great memories of my childhood. In fact, my sisters and I often reminisce (hồi tưởng) about it. Perhaps when you look back everything seems better, but our summer holidays seemed to go on forever and the sun always seemed to be shining. Nowadays, if we ever have a hot summer day, it always reminds me of my childhood holidays.
Teacher: Do you think you have a good memory or a poor memory?
Student: Well, when I was younger I think I used to have a very good memory. I used to be able to memorise long lists of dates without any trouble. But I find it harder and harder to remember things these days, so now I’d say my memory is quite poor. When I’m studying I find I have to think up strategies to help me, like visualising (hình dung, tưởng tượng) something associated with a particular word. I even forget important things sometimes, so I have to write myself little notes as a reminder.
(Unit 2: Mental and physical)
II. Từ vựng liên quan trong bài
- ability /əˈbɪl.ə.t̬i/ : Khả năng
- concept /ˈkɑːn.sept/: Chủ đề, ý tưởng, khái niệm, chủ đạo
- consequence /ˈkɑːn.sə.kwəns/: Hậu quả
- imagination /ɪˌmædʒ.əˈneɪ.ʃən/: Tưởng tượng
- infancy /ˈɪn.fən.si/ : Thời thơ ấu
- peers /pɪr/: Đồng nghiệp
- abstract /ˈæb.strækt/: Trừu tượng
- clumsy /ˈklʌm.zi/: Hậu đậu, vụng về
- fond /fɑːnd/: Ngây thơ
- fully grown /ˌfʊlˈɡroʊn/: Phát triển đầy đủ
- independent /ˌɪn.dɪˈpen.dənt/: Độc lập
- irresponsible /ˌɪr.əˈspɑːn.sə.bəl/: Thiếu trách nhiệm
- tolerant /ˈtɑː.lɚ.ənt/: Khoan dung, chấp thuận, tha thứ
- throw a tantrum: Bộc lộ 1 cơn giận giữ
- visualise /ˈvɪʒ.u.əl.aɪz/: Hình dung, gợi lại, nhắc lại
- typically /ˈtɪp.ɪ.kəl.i/: Tiêu biểu
Phrases with mind
- bear in mind: Hãy nhớ trong tâm trí
- broaden the mind: Mở mang đầu óc
- have something in mind: Có 1 ý tượng nào đó
- have something on your mind: Lo lắng về điều gì đó
- it shipped my mind: Quên mất rồi
- keep an open mind: Không kết luận vội vàng trước khi biết chính xác sự việc
- my mind went blank: Không thể nhớ ra
- put your mind at ease: Đừng lo lắng quá
HỌC IELTS MỖI NGÀY!!!